Neville Chamberlain, prime minister of Britain 1937 to 1940. Often misquoted to have said “In my hand I have a piece of paper" after returning from the Munich Conference. Famous (or infamous depending on your point of view) for appeasing Hitler and Mussolini . Though there is much debate about his choice of appeasement regarding the Fascist states; was he merely a coward, buying Britain time to re-arm or did not want to see the European states in another great war (note World War One was still very much in people’s memories and most countries were still suffering economically, socially and politically due to it).
Chamberlain declared war on Germany following Hitler’s invasion of Poland, at 1115 he addressed the nation:
We have a clear conscience, we have done all that any country could do to establish peace. The situation in which no word given by Germany’s ruler could be trusted, and no people or country could feel itself safe had become intolerable … Now may God bless you all. May He defend the right. It is the evil things we shall be fighting against—brute force, bad faith, injustice, oppression, and persecution—and against them I am certain that the right will prevail.
Chamberlain resigned as Prime Minister on 10 May 1940 leading to Churchhill’s war time cabinet.